My research involves identifying individual traits that might moderate reactions to ostracism (being ignored and excluded by individuals or groups). Research confirms that being socially ostracized compromises psychological functioning, threatens basic social needs and emotions, and influences behavior. My work focuses on measurement of individual differences in perceived ostracism experiences.
I study how targets of chronic ostracism cope with novel and prolonged exclusionary social interactions. Do all chronic targets react in the same way? My work clarifies important distinctions among ostracized targets as individuals, grouped individuals, and individuals who belong to stigmatized or marginalized groups.
One practical application of my research entails outcomes of being "out of the loop." I employ an interdisciplinary perspective to examine the effect of perceived ostracism in the workplace and link “out of the loop" experiences with the recruitment, retention, and promotion of women and racial minority graduate students, staff, and faculty in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields.
- Aggression, Conflict, Peace
- Gender Psychology
- Group Processes
- Intergroup Relations
- Interpersonal Processes
- Life Satisfaction, Well-Being
- Organizational Behavior
- Persuasion, Social Influence
- Prejudice and Stereotyping
- Sexuality, Sexual Orientation
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- Carter-Sowell, A. R., Wesselmann, E. D., Wirth, J. H., Law, A. T., Chen, Z., Kosasih, M., van der Lee, R., & Williams, K. D. (2010). Belonging trumps justice: Effects of being ostracized for being better or worse than the others. Journal of Individual Psychology, 66, 68-92.
- Goodwin, S. A., Williams, K. D., & Carter-Sowell, A. R. (2010). The psychological sting of stigma: The costs of attributing ostracism to racism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 612-618.
- Jones, E. E., Carter-Sowell, A. R., & Kelly, J. R. (2011). Participation matters: Psychological and behavioral consequences of information exclusion in groups. Group Dynamics, 15, 311-325.
- Jones, E. E., Carter-Sowell, A. R., Kelly, J. R., & Williams, K. D. (2009). “I'm out of the loop”: Ostracism through information exclusion. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 12, 157-174.
- Carter-Sowell, A. R., Chen, Z., & Williams, K. D. (2008). Ostracism increases social susceptibility. Social Influence, 3, 143-153.
- Williams, K. D., & Carter-Sowell, A. R. (2007). Ostracism. In R. Baumeister and K. Vohs (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Social Psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 641-643). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
- Williams, K. D., & Carter-Sowell, A. R. (2010). Ostracism. In J. M. Levine & M. A. Hogg (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations (Vol. 2, pp. 628-631). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
- Williams, K. D., & Carter-Sowell, A. R. (2009). Marginalization through social ostracism: Effects of being ignored and excluded. In F. Butera & J. Levine (Eds.), Coping with Minority Status: Responses to Exclusion and Inclusion (pp. 104-124). New York: Cambridge University Press.
- Group Processes and Social Influence
- Human Sexual Behavior: Cross-Cultural Perspectives
- Psychology of Women
- Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Minority Experience
224 Psychology Building
Department of Psychology
4235 Texas A&M University
College Station, Texas 77843-4235
- Work: (979) 845-3295
- Home: (979) 703-5790
- Mobile: (979) 492-0540
- Fax: (979) 845-4727
- Skype Name: cartersowell